M91 (Finland)

M91 finn.jpg

Finnish M91 Mosin Nagant
General Specifications: General Description:

Weight -- 9 1/2 lbs. (4.3kg))
Length (over all) -- 51 1/2" (130.8 cm)
Barrel Length -- 31 1/2" (80.0 cm)
Stock length -- 47 1/2" (120.7 cm)

  • Produced from- as early as 1922 to as late as 1944.
  • Most common model of rifle used by the Finnish military
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Finland, during the war for independence from Russia in 1917 captured numerous M91 Mosins. Along with the captured weapons, they also already had many on hand from former Soviet occupation and decided to use it as the basis to supply and arm their military. The M91 was used to arm troops from the Civil Guard to the basic infantry. Finland also purchased or traded other arms for them. Most were aquired from other countries between 1924 thru 1941, from various places such as Poland, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia. Some M91 rifles can be found in standard Russian built configuration with nothing more than a [SA] stamp.

The Finnish military decided to modify the Mosin thru out it's use. The M91 can be found in many configurations. The one thing Finland would reuse is the receiver. The receiver can be found from all manufactures and all dates, the hex receiver being widely used. Much like other Finnish weapons, variations exist, a few later M91's have been found fitted with a round receiver (very rare). The most common variation is stocks, anything from a standard reused Russian issue stock to the two and three piece spliced Finnish stock can be found. The Finnish made stocks have a change also(these have been found used on Russian stocks also), the use of metal wire sling hangers, these sling hangers allow the many different sling variations the Finn's had to be attached. Brass shims are a common find in the action, these were used as accurizing methods, helping to adjust pressure on the barrel.

Other small variations can also be found, trigger set-ups from other Finnish Mosins, front and rear sights can be expected at times. The normal rear sight is generally the standard Konoalov, with an extra step for 200 meter battle sight. The Russian arshin on the left side can be X'ed out, stamped through or scrubbed. The Finnish marked the right side of the base in meters.

Model M91 Rifle Variants

Production Variants: Barrel stamps

SAT Barrel: Suomen Ampumataruikehdas, Marked SAT Riihimaki, very few made, the estimated production is around 200, possibly one of the rarest Finnish Mosins. This was Finlands first attempt to manufacture barrels.

  • Production Dates 1922-1924

P-Series: Known to have relined barrels, an effort to reuse worn barrels by relining. Markings commonly will include a P-26 and P-27 (number being the year) with an "S".The "S" is for the process known as the Salerno method. A method of repairing worn barrels learned in Italy by Finnish Colonel A.E. Saloranta. Any Russian stamps will commonly be scrubbed. Along with the markings, another trait of this series is a barrel in the white, while the other parts are blued as normal.

  • Production Dates 1925-1927, unused remaining barrels were also built as complete rifles again in the 1940's.
  • Number built est. 13000 to 14000
P-27 barrel shank stamp Crown showing installed barrel liner

Tikkakoski(Early Tikka): Started barrel manufacturing in 1925. The early barrels, 1925 and to mid 1926 are dated on the bottom of the barrel, the middle production, mid 1926 and 1927 moved the date to the top of the barrel. These can be found with Civil Guard district numbers stamped on them. All will have the "T" stamp in the triangle on the top of the barrel shank. Another indication of the mid production is a stepped barrel, these had a heavier barrel than the first production. The step allowed a standard Russian bayonet to be mounted.

  • Production Dates 1925-1927
  • Total number built est. 10000, Stepped barrel production est. 3000

Tikkakoski(Late Tikka): Late Tikka model production was to satisfy the Finnish military need for rifles. The Winter War had started in 1939, one year prior to production. The M39 was just starting production also, but the M91 was a tested and proven design. Also being quicker to manufacture due to an abundance of parts was another plus. They were issued to any and all troops, from the Civil Guard to being used for training. These were assembled at the AV1 and AV3 Arms Depot.

  • Production dates- 1940-1944
  • Number built est. 45000
1942 Tikka barrel shank

VKT: State Rifle Factory(Valmet)- Much like the Late Tikka, these barrels were made to also satisfy the needs for weaponry during the Winter War. The VKT rifles were also assembled at the same Arms Depot.

  • Production dates- 1940-1942
  • Number built est. 32000
1942 VKT barrel shank

B-barrel: These were barrel blanks were supplied by Belgium and the barrels finished by VKT. An est. 13000 barrels, many of which were made into M39 rifles. Some estimate the number of M91 B-barrels to be between 4000-5000 made, making this a fairly uncommon variant. All were assembled post war. One of the rarer versions of the Belgium barrel have what is known as Belgium Liege Proof Stamping. Also a few have been reported with a very purplish/plum color tint to the barrel bluing.

  • Production date- Barrels are dated 1942, but assembly took place postwar--assembly date being unknown
1942 "B" barrel shank

Finnish Changes

The Rear Sight

  • The sight base, a Konovalov style, was calibrated and re-stamped in meters on the right side, it had an extra step added for a 200 meter battle sight. The Russian arshin was commonly stamped through, examples of scrubbed out and unstamped out variations have been noted.
Top sight base is Finnish stamped on right side,
bottom sight, left side of the rifle shows a stamped out Russian arshin sight base

The Front Sight

  • The front sight is drift adjustable, the blade is dovetailed in the base


  • Two piece spliced stock, most will be set up for the Finnish style wire sling hangers
  • Three piecee stocks, these are spliced like the normal Finnish stocks as well as a splice in the toe of the butt stock
  • Reused Russian stocks
Top:reused Russian butt stock
Center:Finnish butt stock
Bottom:Toe spliced Finnish butt stock
Left:Finnish three piece spliced stock
Center:Finnish two piece spliced stock
Right:reused Russian stock
Left and center:Finnish splices
Right:reused Russian stock

Barrel Bands


  • Can either be Finnish or reused Russian handguards



Misc Receiver Markings

  • The Russian Imperial stamp can be X-ed out, ground off or untouched.
  • AZF and or OEWG- These were bought/traded from the Austria-Hungary Military
AZF receiver stamped Tikka with the Imperial Russian Eagle

  • German Markings- Have also been noted, German captured weapons.

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