| General Specifications:
|| General Description:
Weight -- 9
Length (over all) -- 46 3/4" (118.7
Barrel Length -- 27" (68.6 cm)
Stock length -- 43 1/4" (109.9 cm)
- Produced from
- Estimated just
over 33,000 total M28s produced.
- Three barrel
types reported: SIG (most common),
Tikkakoski, & a few Sako
(estimated less than 1,000).
this is the rifle used by the well
known Finnish sniper Simo Häyhä,
nicknamed "White Death."
The M28 was an upgrade to
the Finnish Army M27 and the replacement for
the Civil Guard's M24. With the Finnish Army
adopting the M27, the Finnish Civil Guard,
Suojeluskunta, or White Guard, took the Army's
M27 and made some minor design changes,
resulting in the M28. The rifle's acceptance
was finalized in 1928. Regardless of the
barrel manufacture, all M28s were assembled in
the Sako factory, Sujeluskuntien Ase-Ja
Konepaja Osakeyhtio. Due to the limited
numbers manufactured, loss, Finnish
conversions, and the attrition rates during
the Winter War, the Continuation War, and the
Lapland War, the M28 is one of the more rare
variants of Finnish rifles.
produced from 1928 until 1930 and again in
1932. These barrels were made by the Swiss
firm "SIG", Schweizerische
marking is in script located below the wood
line. The barrel is dated, a small square is
stamped with a 27, 28 or a 29 inside of it, it
is located on the bottom of the barrel shank.
An estimated 20,000 M28s had these barrels.
from 1930 until 1932, identified by "T" in a
triangle on the top of the barrel shank.
Unlike the SIG-made barrel, there is no date
stamping on the barrel, but there is an
assembly number on the bottom side of the
barrel. An estimated 13,000 M28s had these
| Tikka stamp and
|| Tikka assembly
number on bottom of the barrel
|| Civil Guard
Barrel: These were the very beginning of
the M28 production. Estimates are less than
900 made, identified by the Sako gear stamp,
markings usually look very faint and or often
look to be double struck. The manufactures
stamp is in script, below the wood line and
reads: Schweizerische Industrie-Gessellschaft,
and the barrels will have no date stamp.
The very end of the M28 production. Estimates
are less than 1,000 produced. These will have
true Sako made barrels, up until this point,
Sako assembled all of the M28's, but did not
have barrel making abilities.
Changes Made From the M27 to the M28
The Rear Sight
- The sight base, a
modified Konovalov style, was calibrated and
re-stamped in meters on the right side, it
had an extra step added for a 200 meter
battle sight. The Russian arshin was
commonly stamped out.
- The M28's rear sight
plate has 2 screws attaching the plate from
the bottom. The M27 had 2 screws attaching
the plate from the rear of the sight.
- The M28's sight
groove is “U” shaped, while the M27 had a
V-cut sight plate.
- The "protective ears"
of the M27's rear sight, which, from all
accounts, is to help prevent side impact
damage, are not present on the M28.
The Front Sight
- The front sight is
drift adjustable, the blade is dovetailed in
the base, it is equipped with “protective
ears” much like the M27.
- The front sight bases
of the M27 and the M28 look very much the
same, but there is a minor difference: they
are installed differently, the small set
screw that holds it is front-facing on the
M28, while the same style set screw is
rear-facing on the M27.
- The stock is a
modified M91 stock. It was shortened and the
barrel channel was made wider to fit the
larger diameter barrel.
- The first production
of 6000 or so M28s had what is referred to
as the “Ski Trooper” stock, an extra set of
sling slots in the butt stock above the
normal sling slots. This aided mounted
troops or troops on skis, giving them more
options to carry the rifle, either in the
front or rear-slung position. Due to field
and armory repairs, both normal and “Ski
Trooper” stocks could possibly be found on
any serial numbered M28.
- The first design, a
two-piece, has a plate to cover the exposed
wood that is held in place with 2 screws.
The second design, a one-piece, is made
solid in the front. Also unlike the M27,
neither design is hinged to open up.
- The rear barrel band
on the M28 is slightly smaller than on the
M27, due to the Guards reusing and modifying
- Hand-guards are one
commonality between the two rifles, no
differences have been noted.
- The M28 maintained a
similar trigger design as the M24, using a
coil spring (commonly called "mouse trap
spring") to help improve the trigger pull
and assist with the overall accuracy.
The oval shaped SYT stamp is generally located
in the right side finger grooves. This is the
Civil Guard acceptance marking indicating a
successful M91 stock conversion. All barrels
will have 2 to 3 =S= stamps that also show
Civil Guard acceptance. It is common to find a
<-(KE)-> stamp, which is the inspector's
initials stamp, "Kosti Eakola". Other
inspector stamps are known to have been used,
usually just a single letter. Civil Guards'
district numbers are stamped on the right side
barrel, identifying the district it was
initially issued in. Some rifles have been
found with 2 district stamps, with the first
being lined out. The left side contains the
rifle serial number. SIG- and Tikka-produced
barrels are stamped with an "SY" stamp
indicating the Civil Guard designation. In
October 1944, the Civil Guard was disbanded
and all Civil Guard arms were then turned over
to the regular army, which is why many M28s
will have the [SA] stamping.