M28.jpgFinnish M28

Finland M28 Mosin Nagant

General Specifications: General Description:

Weight -- 9 lbs.(4.1 kg)
Length (over all) -- 46 3/4" (118.7 cm)
Barrel Length -- 27" (68.6 cm)
Stock length -- 43 1/4" (109.9 cm)

  • Produced from 1928-1932.
  • Estimated just over 33,000 total M28s produced.
  • Three barrel types reported: SIG (most common), Tikkakoski, & a few Sako (estimated less than 1,000).
  • Reportedly this is the rifle used by the well known Finnish sniper Simo Häyhä, nicknamed "White Death."


The M28 was an upgrade to the Finnish Army M27 and the replacement for the Civil Guard's M24. With the Finnish Army adopting the M27, the Finnish Civil Guard, Suojeluskunta, or White Guard, took the Army's M27 and made some minor design changes, resulting in the M28. The rifle's acceptance was finalized in 1928. Regardless of the barrel manufacture, all M28s were assembled in the Sako factory, Sujeluskuntien Ase-Ja Konepaja Osakeyhtio. Due to the limited numbers manufactured, loss, Finnish conversions, and the attrition rates during the Winter War, the Continuation War, and the Lapland War, the M28 is one of the more rare variants of Finnish rifles.

Model M28 Rifle Variants

Common Variants

SIG Barrel: produced from 1928 until 1930 and again in 1932. These barrels were made by the Swiss firm "SIG", Schweizerische Industrie-Gessellschaft. Manufacturer's marking is in script located below the wood line. The barrel is dated, a small square is stamped with a 27, 28 or a 29 inside of it, it is located on the bottom of the barrel shank. An estimated 20,000 M28s had these barrels.

Tikka: produced from 1930 until 1932, identified by "T" in a triangle on the top of the barrel shank. Unlike the SIG-made barrel, there is no date stamping on the barrel, but there is an assembly number on the bottom side of the barrel. An estimated 13,000 M28s had these barrels.

Tikka stamp and SY stamp Tikka assembly number on bottom of the barrel Civil Guard District number

Uncommon Variants

Early SIG Barrel: These were the very beginning of the M28 production. Estimates are less than 900 made, identified by the Sako gear stamp, markings usually look very faint and or often look to be double struck. The manufactures stamp is in script, below the wood line and reads: Schweizerische Industrie-Gessellschaft, and the barrels will have no date stamp.
Sako produced: The very end of the M28 production. Estimates are less than 1,000 produced. These will have true Sako made barrels, up until this point, Sako assembled all of the M28's, but did not have barrel making abilities.

Changes Made From the M27 to the M28

The Rear Sight

  • The sight base, a modified Konovalov style, was calibrated and re-stamped in meters on the right side, it had an extra step added for a 200 meter battle sight. The Russian arshin was commonly stamped out.
  • The M28's rear sight plate has 2 screws attaching the plate from the bottom. The M27 had 2 screws attaching the plate from the rear of the sight.
  • The M28's sight groove is “U” shaped, while the M27 had a V-cut sight plate.
  • The "protective ears" of the M27's rear sight, which, from all accounts, is to help prevent side impact damage, are not present on the M28.

The Front Sight

  • The front sight is drift adjustable, the blade is dovetailed in the base, it is equipped with “protective ears” much like the M27.
  • The front sight bases of the M27 and the M28 look very much the same, but there is a minor difference: they are installed differently, the small set screw that holds it is front-facing on the M28, while the same style set screw is rear-facing on the M27.


  • The stock is a modified M91 stock. It was shortened and the barrel channel was made wider to fit the larger diameter barrel.
  • The first production of 6000 or so M28s had what is referred to as the “Ski Trooper” stock, an extra set of sling slots in the butt stock above the normal sling slots. This aided mounted troops or troops on skis, giving them more options to carry the rifle, either in the front or rear-slung position. Due to field and armory repairs, both normal and “Ski Trooper” stocks could possibly be found on any serial numbered M28.

Barrel Bands

  • The first design, a two-piece, has a plate to cover the exposed wood that is held in place with 2 screws. The second design, a one-piece, is made solid in the front. Also unlike the M27, neither design is hinged to open up.
  • The rear barrel band on the M28 is slightly smaller than on the M27, due to the Guards reusing and modifying M91 stocks.


  • Hand-guards are one commonality between the two rifles, no differences have been noted.


  • The M28 maintained a similar trigger design as the M24, using a coil spring (commonly called "mouse trap spring") to help improve the trigger pull and assist with the overall accuracy.


The oval shaped SYT stamp is generally located in the right side finger grooves. This is the Civil Guard acceptance marking indicating a successful M91 stock conversion. All barrels will have 2 to 3 =S= stamps that also show Civil Guard acceptance. It is common to find a <-(KE)-> stamp, which is the inspector's initials stamp, "Kosti Eakola". Other inspector stamps are known to have been used, usually just a single letter. Civil Guards' district numbers are stamped on the right side barrel, identifying the district it was initially issued in. Some rifles have been found with 2 district stamps, with the first being lined out. The left side contains the rifle serial number. SIG- and Tikka-produced barrels are stamped with an "SY" stamp indicating the Civil Guard designation. In October 1944, the Civil Guard was disbanded and all Civil Guard arms were then turned over to the regular army, which is why many M28s will have the [SA] stamping.

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